View Full Version : Fars Nomadic Tribes-Ashayer e Fars-Fars Province Nomadic

11-10-2015, 12:06 PM

Introduction:Fars Nomadic Tribes-Ashayer e Fars-Fars Province Nomadic(Persian: عشایر استان فارس ‎)

Fars nomadic tribes have founded a rich culture in Fars Province and part of the nomads' culture is manifested in their lifestyle. The cultural features and characteristics of nomads in Fars Province is one of the most important and main tourist attractions of this province.

In this article, we will become more familiar with the nomads of Fars Province.

The nomads of Fars Province are comprised of three large tribes of Qashqai, Khamseh, and Mamasani, and eight other independent tribes. The migrating nomadic tribes of this region, throughout the warm season, are stationed in northern Fars Province, and within the cold season, migrate to the southeastern, southwestern, and at times the central plains of Fars Province. These regions are generally at a low altitude and maintain a mild climate in winter and a highly warm climate over summer. Meanwhile, the winter headquarters of some of Fars Province nomadic tribes, such as Qashqai tribe is throughout the southern foothills of Zagros Mountain Range. At times, their winter quarters of these nomads is further distanced from these valleys and is extended toward the low-altitude coastal plains till Bushehr Province and southern coastlines of Iran. The overall population of nomads of Fars Province stands at 147,000 people; who constitute 12.5% of the nomads of Iran, and 3.5% of the population of Fars Province.

Qashqai tribe is one of the largest and most famous migrating nomadic tribes in Iran. Hence, in the first part of today's program we will become more familiar with this tribe.

Qashqai tribe is made up of six smaller tribes. The tribal chief is called "Eelkhan". The person in charge of the administration of the affairs and law enforcement of the tribe is referred to as "Eelbaigi". Meanwhile, each of the tribes is made of clans, whose gathering is based on affiliation and kinship among them. The Qashqai tribe members are hard working, courageous, patient, and hospitable, and are highly skilled in marksmanship.

Currently there is scattered information on the history of Qashqai tribe and it is not clear that when this Azeri-speaking tribe has migrated to this region. Nonetheless, based on the existing evidence, it is clear that the members of this tribe have not migrated to Fars Province in the same period of time and in the form of a unified tribe. In fact, this tribe has been shaped gradually with the unity of Azeri-speaking clans and tribes.

Meanwhile, the slow and gradual migration of scattered Qashqai tribes toward southern Iran started as of 600 years ago and continued for almost three centuries until the waning years of the rule of Zandieh Dynasty. The unity of Qashqai tribe and in fact their independent identity became possible during late Safavid era, concurrent with early 18th century.

The economic and social foundation of this tribe, like all other tribes, migrating to and fro cold and warm regions every year, is based on animal husbandry. This tribe has been one of the largest and most powerful tent-dwelling tribes of Iran as of 200 years ago, and as of three centuries ago regularly covers tens of kilometers of distance between its summer and winter quarters each year.

With the arrival of summer, the black tents, which are the place of residence of nomads, are gathered away and all tribe members are destined for meadows on foot or mounted on livestock every year. Meanwhile, with the arrival of cold season, this path is once again covered by the tribal members toward the southern pastures.

Gradually, a number of tribal families and groups are stationed in en route villages and farmlands and are engaged in farming and horticulture. But, the main part of this tribe is still engaged in animal husbandry and ranching, and, naturally move to and fro southern meadows and the scenic altitudes of northern Fars Province, which maintains a moderate climate.

In introduction of the Qashqai nomads, we spoke of black tents, which are the place of residence of these nomads. Hence, it is better to become more familiar with the housing of these nomads.

The place of residence of Iran's migrating nomadic tribes in each region depends on the climate, rate of rainfall, and finally the existing construction materials in that region. Almost, the majority of the migrating nomads in warm and cold regions have places of residence similar to villagers' houses. Meanwhile, usage of black tents is common among Iran's migrating nomads and is compatible with their lifestyle. Black tent is made of goat's hair and is black in color, while rain drops cannot penetrate its layers. During summer, the outer layers of the tent are opened and throughout winter all its layers are closed. The black tents of tribal chiefs are like a large hall, which accommodate a large number of people. At the time of migration; tribes carry light and temporary tents with them which are easily erected and taken away. The tribal men are highly skilled in erecting these tents in the shortest possible time.

The local clothes of the Qashqai men and women are also highly attractive, and, today have turned into one of this tribe's most significant cultural attractions. Women's clothing consists of a small hat, head scarf, colorful, long, and pleated skirts. Also, they wear jackets named "Arkhaleq" over their clothes. Moreover, their jacket and clothing are usually decorated and covered with sequins. The nomadic women use different cheerful colors in sewing their clothes, which are inspired by their surrounding nature. Moreover, the tribal men's clothing consists of a felt hat, a shirt, baggy trousers, long clothing referred to as "Labadeh", and a sash which is four to five meters in length and almost one meter in width.

The Qashqai women cooperate with men in all activities. They are a true example of chastity, hard work, and patience. In addition to doing the house chores and taking care of children, these women cooperate with men in harvesting crops and in maintaining them. They make dairy products such as butter, yogurt, cheese, dried whey, and cream from fresh milk. During their pastime, nomadic women weave carpets, rugs, coarse rugs, and low grade rugs, while also making different types of handicrafts. The carpet weaving art and industry of Fars Province nomads is handled by the tribal women. The hand-woven carpets of Fars Province are unique in regard to their variety, in comparison with the hand woven carpets of other regions.

Freshness, transparency, and variety of colors used, more than any other factor, has led to global fame of Qashqai tribe's hand woven carpets. The ability of Qashqai women in painting fleece, preparing different colors, and appropriately using them is astonishing and unique.


Location: located Fars province.

Walking path length: Depend on Your plan

Days of trip: 3-4 Days from Tehran to Tehran

Best time to visit: No Limit-Bur Spring is the best time

Daily time visit: No limit

Difficulty level: Depend on Your plan

Requirements: Guide or GPS track...Depend on Your plan

Legal permission need: No


Overall risk: No

Animal risk: Depend on Your plan

Lost risk: Depend on Your plan

Rescue: You can call 115

GSM Mobile Antenna: in some region Yes


Hotel: in Shiraz city Yes

Shop: in Shiraz city Yes

Gasoline: in Shiraz city Yes


How to get there:
1- Go to South terminal of buses in Tehran
2- Take a bus ticket to Shiraz(10-12 hours in bus)( Distance from Tehran to Shiraz is 940 km)
3- Take a taxi from Shiraz to your place that you specified.

Nearest airport: Shiraz airport

Nearest train station: Shiraz station


Usually wedding ceremonies among different tribes manifest their particular traditions. In the nomadic community, selection of the spouse is not just establishment of a bond between two individuals or two families. In fact, marriage takes on more important and vaster dimensions, which includes the establishment of a bond between two tribes or two clans. In a number of cases, marriages among nomads could spell an end to enmity and hostility. Among the Qashqai nomads, the average age of marriage is usually low and marriages usually take place within families.

Families play an effective role in the marriage of youths and usually weddings take place with the contentment of the elders of both families. In fact, marriage takes place in line with reinforcement of the status of family.

One of the main incentives behind marriage among Qashqai nomads is to expand the family, because families are the main pillars in nomads’ lives and Qashqai tribes are forced to meet all their needs on their own due to their self-reliant lifestyle. Hence, manpower plays the first role in economic revenues. Moreover, the absence of job security in advanced ages makes nomadic men and women reliant upon their children. Furthermore, the patriarchy among these families adds importance to presence of sons for continuation of the family’s generation. In fact, the sons of the families, in addition to assisting their parents, participate in maintenance of assets and animal husbandry. The families who have a number of sons usually have lesser problems in their activities.

Meanwhile, divorce is an unwanted phenomenon among nomads.

The Qashqai tribes usually celebrate festivities such as weddings in summer quarters and besides springs and green meadows through erection of numerous tents and wearing colorful clothes. Many traditions such as horse riding, marksmanship, and singing are also part of these weddings. The local dance among Qashqai tribe reinforces the spirit and boosts energy to face the hardships of life. Moreover, this dance is the symbol of solidarity, unity, and amity. Throughout this dance, everyone holds colorful tissues, standing next to each other and forming a large circle. One of the common dances among Qashqai men is Darmarow Dance. In this dance, men in pairs and in turn wield a short and a long wooden stick and stage a friendly confrontation with the sound of kettledrums. Concurrent with the music, whose rhythm intensifies gradually, they try to hit the rival’s leg with the stick; to seize the long wooden stick; and to push the rival out of the scene. In this manner, the dance continues until the specification of the final winner.

We became familiar with part of traditions of Qashqai tribe about weddings and festivities. One of the other customs and traditions of Qashqai tribe is the ceremonies held for collection of wool. Wool as a livestock product is of high importance for nomads, because wool is the raw material of one of the most important handicrafts of Qashqai tribes, the hand-woven rugs, which are a main source of revenues for nomads. The collection of wool takes place in two stages, coupled with its especial traditions. The first phase takes place in early spring and in winter quarters, and the second phase takes place in mid-summer and in summer quarters. Usually, the wool collected in summer quarters is used for production of felt, which is used in arbors. As we said, wool and hair are the raw material for Qashqai’s hand-woven rugs. Given the importance of these rugs and their registration among the global heritage, we found it appropriate to introduce Fars Province hand-woven carpets as one of Iran’s export items.

In general, the hand-woven handicrafts of Qashqai tribe can be divided into two categories of fuzzy ones such as rugs and low-grade rugs, and non-fuzzy ones such as coarse rugs. Among these hand-woven handicrafts of Qashqai tribes there are some applicable handicrafts such as saddlebags that may be a blend of fuzzy and non-fuzzy products.

Among the Fars Province nomads, the most beautiful art is still production of rugs through hard work of the nomadic women. The Fars Province nomads, especially Qashqai and Khamseh tribes, are more engaged in rug weaving compared to other nomads. Among Qashqai nomads the rugs are weaved such that they would be completed in a short period because living in winter and summer quarters each year limits the development of rug weaving industry. Hence usually the hand-woven rugs of nomads are small. Due to absence of walls to rest the rug loom, the horizontal rug looms have become common for weaving rugs. The horizontal rug loom used by nomads is very simple and can be shifted and installed in the shortest possible time.

Low-grade rugs are also among the hand-woven handicrafts of nomads. They manifest the beauty, freshness, and joyfulness of nomadic lives. The main background of these low grade rugs are green plains in which the nomads live. In different regions of Iran low-grade rugs are woven with the natural colors of wool. However, in the low-grade rugs woven by Qashqai tribes, different colors and drawings are used. The drawing of lions is a usual one for Qashqai weavers, which is the symbol of selflessness. Other drawings such as stars and animals are also used in weaving of rugs. The Qashqai low-grade rugs are made of complete wool and are usually woven in 100cm-200cm or 200cm-115cm dimensions.

Coarse rugs are also woven by Qashqai tribes, which are used as light blankets and as a covering for the furniture inside the tent. Small coarse rugs are also used as covertures. Coarse rugs are made of different colors, especially bright colors. The coarse rugs are masterpieces of tribal women. The original Qashqai coarse rugs are fully made of wool and are thereafter woven. The diameters of their fibers are very thin and their consumed wool is highly delicate. It could be said that the stability of colors against washing and light rays has led to the global fame of Qashqai coarse rugs.

Meanwhile, all the stages of spinning, dying, warping, and weaving of coarse rugs are done by women. The hand-woven handicrafts of nomads, in contrast to their similar factory-made products, do not have the same shape.


11-10-2015, 12:44 PM