Iran is an ancient land with an even more ancient civilization and the starting point of many inventions, which have helped shape human society throughout history. Excavations of different sites in western Iran have shed light on the Middle Stone Age period, suggesting that this was where the domestication of animals and plants began. Urban settlements in Iran date back to 4,000 BC and the Iranian civilization predates the Egyptian one by 500 years, the Indian one by 1,000 years, the Chinese one by 2,000 years, the Greek one by 3,000 years and the Roman one by 4,000 years.The Achaemenid Kings (550-330 BC) conquered all the governments of the known world for the first and last time in history. By uniting 28 nationalities under one color and establishing a tax system, government insurance, customs duties, official records and a legal code, the Achaemenids started the first federal government system consisting of 127 provinces or Ostans, which were run by satraps (lesser kings) who ruled under the supervision of the Great King (Shahan-Shah). King Darius of Persia (550-486 BC) engraved the first Human Rights Charter cataloguing the concepts of Human Rights, freedom of religion and equality of all races in the Alvand Mountain (Ganj-Nameh) near the ancient Persian Capital of Hagmataneh about 2,500 years ago.Cyrus the Great of Persia (576-530 BC) wrote his own Human Rights Charter on a cylindrical clay tablet when he conquered Babylon to free the Jews in 537 BC. Persepolis, the ceremonial capital of the Achaemenids, is the epitome of these Human Rights principles.Unlike the Romans and Egyptians, who used slaves to create the Colosseum and the Pyramids, the Persians redefined labor-employer relations by paying artisans from Greece to Egypt, Ethiopia, Phynicia and India to create one of the most magnificent masonry works over a period of 150 years. Women were part of the workforce used to create Persepolis. These women received equal pay, sometimes earning higher wages than their male counterparts, received baby bonuses and were granted six months of paid maternity leave.The Achaemenids started the tradition of etching history into stone, a trend which was later carried on by their Sassanid (226-651 CE) descendants. These magnificent works of art mark the mountains of Iran and tell the story of their ascensions to the throne, coronations, their victories, and portray the splendor of their courts.