Some of the earliest practices of ancient medicine have been documented in the Avesta and other Zoroastrian religious texts, according to which the first anesthesia was administered in Persia around 1,000 BC. These texts tell us that the ancient Persians placed great importance on personal hygiene, public health and the prevention of contagious diseases.The Vendidad (a book consisting of religious and ritualistic regulations) tells of the practice of three kinds of medicine; medicine by the knife (surgery), medicine by herbs, and medicine by divine words.Persian Magi and Mobeds (Zoroastrian priests) were the best teachers of medicine and astrology who passed their knowledge on to their pupils from one generation to the next. Excavations of the ruins of Burnt City in eastern Iran have yielded evidence of the first brain surgery performed in Persia 5,000 years ago.For thousands of years, Persian medicine combined medical traditions from Greece, Egypt, India and China, becoming the foundation of European medical practices in the 13th century.Two Persian physicians who rank among the greatest in all history are Avicenna and Mohammad Zakaria Razi. Avicenna (980 – 1037 CE), the prolific genius whose works are still taught in universities today, introduced systematic experimentation into the study of physiology, clinical trials, risk factor analysis, and the idea of syndrome, contributing to clinical pharmacology and neuropsychiatry. Razi (865 – 925 CE), known in the West as Razes, is considered the father of pediatrics and a pioneer of neurosurgery and ophthalmology. He discovered and refined the use of ethanol in medicine.Persian literature is one of humanity’s oldest and main bodies of literature but very few literary works have survived from ancient Persia due to the fire that destroyed the Persepolis library. Most of what remains is in the form of royal inscriptions.The first love poem discovered in the world dates back to 4,000 years ago and is in ancient Persian.Arsacid Gousans (troubadours) are perhaps the fathers of poetry and music in the world. This tradition of passing lyrical stories from one generation to the next made Iran a natural breeding ground for renowned poets such as Roudaki (858 – 940 CE), Ferdowsi (940 – 1020 CE), Khayyam (1048 – 1131), Mowlavi (Rumi) (1207 – 1273 CE), Sa’adi (1210 – 1290 CE) and Hafez (1325 – 1390 CE. Persian scholars of the old world were all masters of writing in verse and so for example a great portion of the medical writings of Avicenna is in verse.